This is amazing! It might be a personal feeling, but my opinion is that Facebook is SO much better than Google at delivering open source libraries that people want, and support them in the best way. React vs Angular, Pytorch vs Tensorflow. These are just two examples among many where the Facebook framework arrives a bit later on the market but is then supported awesomely and improved continuously while the Google framework arrives earlier but then becomes a hot mess of non retro compatible upgrades and deprecations Flow, Buck, Hack to name a few.
I mean, the cool things are cool even if I have a really hard time with Facebook as a company but I think it's a bit of a stretch to say Facebook has "the recipe". FB has thrown a lot of random stuff over the wall that they use internally and thought might be useful to other people. I think Hack and Buck fit into this category. Facebook will maintain them forever, because they are core parts of internal infrastructure.
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Their value to Facebook is completely independent of wider industry adoption. Whereas PyTorch is intended, from the ground up, to be a widely useful project, and the dev team weights open-source issues at least as much as internal ones. Full disclosure: I used to work at Facebook, including, briefly, on PyTorch.
Especially after lvl5. Not a big fan of Facebook as a company, but as an open source contributor they are among the best in my book.
FastText, RocksDB Part of what made AWS get such a head start is that Amazon actually build it for themselves. Google just throws random tech around, but most of their own tools stay internal. Being a little slower to release allows you to learn from other's mistakes. Python tends to follow this philosophy when adopting language features, they're usually not the first to introduce something, but when they do introduce it it tends to be very polished.
For long term maintainability, and adoption this matters tremendously. Google has go, that one at least is pretty great. Not everyone agrees with that one. Do you think putting time to learning PyTorch will change my mind?
I have been using react native for 3 years and it is amazing! To my knowledge there are no equivalent platform allowing to develop cross platform apps in Typescript.GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
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The Hitchhiker’s Guide to PyTorch: Gradients and GPUs
Sign up for a free GitHub account to open an issue and contact its maintainers and the community. Already on GitHub? Sign in to your account. I've recently discovered an issue with memory not being freed after the first iteration of training. It's not a leak, as memory usage stays consistent after the second pass through the loop.
The issue seems to come from the either backward or optimizer. I ran into this while attempting to train a rather large model that uses pretty much all of my available GPU memory.
It will complete the first iteration successfully, then OOM during the second. The memory usage should be relatively the same in the first pass through the training loop, and all following loops. Python version: 3. This is more at the root of the issue, and I may have chosen a bad title.
If you look at the peak usage, it is higher by about 40MB in the second pass. In the model I was training when I discovered this it was more exaggerated, being almost 1GB higher. Still runs about 1GB higher in the second iteration onward for that architecture. Sorry about that. Finally got around to changing my old username which breaks all those links. I encounter the same problem, and memory is about 8GB higher when executing the second loss. I do not know why.
KaiQiao it may be worth noting in this discussion that if you are using adaptive optimizers like Adam, there are a lot of buffers being created under the hood. They are very memory hungry. And as SsnL mentioned, those buffers are created on the first call to step. So they will only appear after the first iteration. KaiQiao 8GB sounds steep for optimizer buffers though. That is a significant amount. This may help. Strangely, after rebooting the machine, i dno not encounter the "out of memory" again, though using the same Adam.
My biggest model was 45M and I thought that was gigantic. When I add time. I belive the gc kicks in during the sleep. If that's true, swapping time.This suite contains multiple tools that can perform different types of checks.
The memcheck tool is capable of precisely detecting and attributing out of bounds and misaligned memory access errors in CUDA applications.
The tool also reports hardware exceptions encountered by the GPU. The racecheck tool can report shared memory data access hazards that can cause data races. The initcheck tool can report cases where the GPU performs uninitialized accesses to global memory. The synccheck tool can report cases where the application is attempting invalid usages of synchronization primitives. This document describes the usage of these tools.
CUDA applications often run thousands of threads in parallel. Every programmer invariably encounters memory access errors and thread ordering hazards that are hard to detect and time consuming to debug.
The number of such errors increases substantially when dealing with thousands of threads. For a full list of options that can be specified to memcheck and their default values, see Command Line Options. Command line options can be specified to cuda-memcheck.
With some exceptions, the options to memcheck are usually of the form --option value. The option list can be terminated by specifying All subsequent words on the command line are treated as the application being run and its arguments. The table below describes the supported options in detail. Some options have a one character short form, which is given in parentheses.
These options can be invoked using a single hyphen. For example, the help option can be invoked as -h. The options that have a short form do not take a value. The second column contains the permissible values for the option. The third column contains the default value of the option.
Some options have different default values depending on the architecture they are being run on. Windows, supported Linux distributions and Android. To generate line number information for applications without affecting the optimization level of the output, the -lineinfo option to nvcc can be used. For the host backtrace, this varies based on the host OS. On Linux, the host compiler must be given the -rdynamic option to retain function symbols. On Windows, the application must be compiled for debugging, i.
When using nvcc, flags to the host compiler can be specified using the -Xcompiler option. For the device backtrace, the full frame information is only available when the application is compiled with device debug information.
The compiler can skip generation of frame information when building with optimizations. The memcheck tool is a run time error detection tool for CUDA applications. The tool can precisely detect and report out of bounds and misaligned memory accesses to global, local, shared and global atomic instructions in CUDA applications. It can also detect and report hardware reported error information. In addition, the memcheck tool can detect and report memory leaks in the user application.
The errors that can be reported by the memcheck tool are summarized in the table below.Learn how TensorFlow and PyTorch compare against each other using convolutional neural networks as an example for image training using a Resnet model.
Deep learning algorithms help solve cognitive problems in an effective way. One decision that data scientists or developers of artificial intelligence AI apps must know is which framework is best for their use case.
Google started a proprietary machine learning language called DistBelief that later transformed into TensorFlow. Over time, they moved most of their runtime into Python. With TensorFlow, you must define the graph statically and then run the model through a session. These graphs in TensorFlow are difficult to debug.
Even though they provide a debugging tool called tfdbg, it helps to analyze the tensors and their operations. From a Python standpoint, you need a separate debugger to debug that code. However, there is a very good visualizing tool called TensorBoard that gives a great visualization of the model, hyper parameters, runtime, and so on.
Torch is an open source machine learning library based on the Lua programming language. Over time, it has been converted into a Python-based library with some changes and called PyTorch. This is heavily used by Facebook. PyTorch lets you define, change, and run the model dynamically.
You can use any Python debugger like pdb to debug the PyTorch-based code. It does not have a visualizer like TensorBoard. However, as the framework becomes more mature, there should be more visualizers developed for it as well. I use a Resnet model with an ImageNet data set and a batch size of 32 images.
I evaluated it on both TensorFlow and PyTorch. I found that PyTorch performed much better compared to TensorFlow. I dissected the application to see where they spent most of their time and for what purpose. The per iteration time to process 32 images was computed at ms on PyTorch compared to ms on TensorFlow. The major benefit for PyTorch comes from the type of kernels that it uses for the forward and backward propagation, which is evident from the time spent on the propagation. PyTorch spent 31 ms and 33 ms on forward and backward computation, respectively, whereas TensorFlow spent 55 ms and ms on similar operations.
The gradient reduction operation in PyTorch is an exclusive operation with no other computations happening in parallel. With TensorFlow, the reduction is a parallel operation that gets computed alongside the backward propagation kernels.
I also note that PyTorch acts on raw input images and eventually spends a lot of time doing the preprocessing of the data. TensorFlow does the processing of the images to a certain extent and stores them as TFRecords even before the start of the training phase.
This results in TensorFlow spending only 22 ms compared to PyTorch spending 48 ms to preprocess the data. This benefit of preprocessing in TensorFlow does not get converted to the full training benefit because the kernels used in PyTorch are much superior compared to TensorFlow. If TensorFlow can somehow use similar kernels, that should result in TensorFlow performing better than PyTorch for models like Resnet In this blog post, I showed that even though two different deep learning frameworks work on the same model, the runtime characteristics can be drastically different, which results in a difference in performance.
In another sense, it also shows the possible optimization opportunities for improving some of these frameworks.The problem persists with other pretrained models and with a custom model that I am trying to use. And using garbage collectors does not show any increase in objects. This gist has the full code snippet including an example imgbuf. This very likely due to you adding ops faster than MXNet is able to process them. MXNet is foundamentally asynchronous, it runs on eager execution.Optimization method - Neural Style Transfer #3
When you call forwardyou effectively say, compute this forward as soon as possible. The python callbacks returns which allows very simple and intuitive parallelism.
To properly benchmark you need to add a synchronous call. For example mx. In my actual use case which I tried to simplify above, but clearly not properly! I actually already had this in place, and am still seeing constant memory increase. My program uses a queue system to feed image buffers to a function which does the tensor transformation and forward pass, then puts the result back on a different queue.
If I perform this without the mxnet component e. Any ideas on what may be causing this? Or do you know if there is a way to force mxnet to release all memory?
Could you share a bigger snippet of your code? MXNet should release the memory once it is out of scope, it gets garbage collected. My hunch is that you are calling nd. Sorry for hijacking. Have a similar problem, where i repeatedly call a function that loads a model and returns a prediction and memory keeps increasing with number of calls to that function.
Add a synchronous call the loop, e. As for the load-model-once-make-several-predictions approach: that reduces the problem to some extend as the memory is still continuously increasing, but at a lower rate than with the model-load also happening inside the loop. Secondly, our use case is server-ish in nature, i. MXNet will re-use memory but the usage may appear to be going up if you look at nvidia-smi. If you see an eventual OOM error than something is wrong.
Hi, abieler ThomasDelteil VishaalKapoor have you solved your problem? I encountered this memory leakage problem during inference as well. Using waitall or asnumpy does not prevent this happening.GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
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Sign in to your account. I have tried export my network using torch. Hi myloftywould you mind give a minimal example for us to repro? I have upload my model to github. I have the same problem, trying with tensors of the same size gives no memory leak.
I have tried the cache environment variable for mkldnn, but it did not work. Skip to content. Dismiss Join GitHub today GitHub is home to over 50 million developers working together to host and review code, manage projects, and build software together.
Sign up. New issue. Jump to bottom. Labels module: cpp topic: memory usage triaged. Copy link Quote reply. Sign up for free to join this conversation on GitHub. Already have an account? Sign in to comment.The graph is differentiated using the chain rule. If any of tensors are non-scalar i.
This function accumulates gradients in the leaves - you might need to zero them before calling it. Note that in nearly all cases setting this option to True is not needed and often can be worked around in a much more efficient way. Defaults to False.
Usually gradients w. Default: None. Default: False. This section contains the higher level API for the autograd that builds on the basic API above and allows you to compute jacobians, hessians, etc. Note that when strict is Falsethe result can not require gradients or be disconnected from the inputs. If Falsewe return a Tensor of zeros as the jacobian for said inputs, which is the expected mathematical value.
Jacobian Tensor or nested tuple of Tensors if there are a single input and output, this will be a single Tensor containing the Jacobian for the linearized inputs and output. If one of the two is a tuple, then the Jacobian will be a tuple of Tensors.
If Falsewe return a Tensor of zeros as the hessian for said inputs, which is the expected mathematical value. Hessian Tensor or a tuple of tuple of Tensors if there are a single input, this will be a single Tensor containing the Hessian for the input. Function that computes the dot product between a vector v and the Jacobian of the given function at the point given by the inputs. Must be the same size as the output of func. If Falsewe return a Tensor of zeros as the vjp for said inputs, which is the expected mathematical value.
Function that computes the dot product between the Jacobian of the given function at the point given by the inputs and a vector v. Must be the same size as the input of func. If Falsewe return a Tensor of zeros as the jvp for said inputs, which is the expected mathematical value. Function that computes the dot product between a vector v and the Hessian of a given scalar function at the point given by the inputs.